There is always a need to apply some amount of spacing when doing adjustments in our work for a better presentation. The aspect of spacing is very important and this article will guide you to have a full understanding of spacing in LaTeX.

LaTeX Algorithm permits the treatment of blank spaces by ignoring them whereby a sequence of blank spaces is treated as a single space. LaTeX does the same for a sequence of blank lines, it converts it to a single newline.

LaTeX provides us with a good number of commands to help us in creating both vertical and horizontal spacing.

Spacing in LaTeX makes use of length commands. In this context, there are basically 3 types of length commands when dealing with spacing.

- Length data commands represent a fixed length. It can be assigned or used as the length in other commands.
- Length assignment command basically assigns value to the length data.
- Length setting command which generate a blank space with a certain height or width.

## Horizontal spacing

The following are length commands that generate horizontal space with their various descriptions and examples.

1. `\quad`

and `\qquad`

generates a horizontal blank space with a width of 1em and 2em respectively. In summary, `\qquad`

doubles the effect of `\quad`

.

The space produced by `\quad`

and `\qquad`

simultaneously can be demonstrated:⏹ ⏹ and ⏹ ⏹

**Example:**

- Apples
`\quad`

Apples**will give**Apples Apples. - Apples
`\qquad`

Apples**will give**Apples Apples.

2. `\hspace{length}`

and `\hspace*{length}`

generate a horizontal blank(white) space equivalent to the length. `\hspace*{length}`

produces a non-ignoring space. By default, LaTeX will delete any space at the beginning or end of a line. This command forces the space to be

implemented.

**NB: **Lengths can be positive or negative.

- Apples
`\hspace{5em}`

Apples**will give**Apples Apples. -
**will give**This is to demonstrate the effect of negative space.

3. `\hfill`

command generates a white space that fills the entire line.

**Example:**

`\rule{0.5cm}{1em}\hfill \rule{0.5cm}{1em}`

**will give**

4. `\hphantom{text}`

command gives us a white space that is equivalent to the width of the text.

**Example:**

The quick `\hphantom{brown}`

fox jump over the lazy dog.

**will give**

The quick fox jump over the lazy dog.

5. `\thinspace`

or \, generates a horizontal blank(white) space with a width of 0.16667em. It is mostly used in character spacing.

6. `\negthinspace`

or \! generates a horizontal blank(white) space with a width of −0.2777em. It can be used for character adjustment.

7. `\medspace`

or \: generates a horizontal blank(white) space with a width of 0.2222em.

8. `\thickspace`

or \; generates a horizontal blank(white) space with a width of 0.2777 em.

9. `\enskip`

generates a horizontal blank(white) space with a width of 0.5em.

10. `\enspace`

generates a horizontal blank(white) space with a width of 0.5em and can be use for character spacing adjustments.

## Vertical spacing

The following are length commands that generate vertical space with their various descriptions and examples.

1. `\vspace{height}`

and `\vspace*{height}`

produces vertical white space equivalent to the specified height in the braces. `\vspace*{height}`

will forcefully produce a vertical space equivalent to the specified height in the braces at the top of page. The height can either be positive or negative.

2. `\vfill`

generates a white space the vertical fills the rest of the page.

3. `\vphantom{text}`

generates a vertical blank of width zero and a total height equal to the total height of the text in the braces.

4. `\smallskip`

generate a vertical space with a height of 3pt ± 1pt.

5. `\medskip`

doubles the effect of the `\smallskip`

i.e 6pt ± 2pt.

6. `\bigskip`

generates a vertical space which is equivalent to four times the effect of `\smallskip`

i.e 12pt ± 4pt.

`\phantom{text}`

Generates a blank with a total height and width equal to the total height and width of the text in the braces, respectively.

**Horizontal Spacing Summary**

Commands | Effects |
---|---|

`\quad` |
1em horizontal space |

`\qquad` |
2em horizontal space |

`\hspace{length}` |
horizontal space equal to length specification |

`\hspace*{length}` |
horizontal space at beginning of line equal to length specification |

`\hfill` |
a horizontal white space that fill entire line |

`\hphantom{text}` |
white space equal to width of text |

`\enskip` |
horizontal blank(white) space with a width of 0.5em. |

`\enspace` |
horizontal blank(white) space with a width of 0.5em. |

`\thinspace or \,` |
horizontal blank(white) space with a width of 0.16667em. |

`\negthinspace or \!` |
horizontal blank(white) space with a width of −0.16667em. |

`\medspace or \:` |
horizontal blank(white) space with a width of 0.2222em. |

`\thickspace or \;` |
horizontal blank(white) space with a width of 0.2777 em. |

**Vertical Spacing Summary**

Commands | Effects |
---|---|

`\vspace{height}` |
vertical space equal to the length specification |

`\vspace*{height}` |
vertical space at the top of page equal to the length specification |

`\vfill` |
a vertical white space that fills an entire page |

`\vphantom{text}` |
white space equal to the total height of text |

`smallskip` |
vertical white space with a height 3pt ± 1pt |

`medskip` |
vertical white space with a height 6pt ± 2pt |

`bigskip` |
vertical white space with a height 12pt ± 4pt |

## Conclusion

Understanding how to deal with spacing is of utmost importance to become proficient in LaTeX. This tutorial helps you to have a full understanding of the different spacing commands available in LaTeX.