Mathematically, one or more dot symbols are used on a letter to denote a dot derivative. The default commands for this are `\dot`

and `\ddot`

and in which differential variables must be passed as arguments.

```
\documentclass{article}
\begin{document}
\[ \dot{v} \]
\[ \ddot{v} \]
\end{document}
```

**Output :**

But, if you want to use more than two dots, you need to take the help of **asmmath** package. And in this case, I will use the `\dddot`

and `\ddddot`

commands.

```
\documentclass{article}
\usepackage{amsmath}
\begin{document}
\[ \dddot{v} \]
\[ \ddddot{v} \]
\end{document}
```

**Output :**

Usually one or two dots are used. And while the use of three dots is very rare, the use of four dots is not at all.

## Vector dot derivatives in latex

This dot derivative is mostly used with vectors. For example

```
\documentclass{article}
\begin{document}
\[ \dot{\vec{r}}\; \ddot{\vec{r}}\; \dot{\vec{v}}\; \ddot{\vec{v}} \]
\[ \vec{v}=\vec{u}+\dot{\vec{v}}t \]
\[ \vec{r}=\vec{u}t+\frac{1}{2}\ddot{\vec{r}}t \]
\end{document}
```

**Output :**

I suggest you use the `vv`

command of esvect package without using `vec`

for the vector arrow. Because there are eight types of vector arrows present in this package. And each arrow will be positioned responsibly. And this is the best practice.

```
\documentclass{article}
\usepackage[b]{esvect}
\begin{document}
\[ \dot{\vv{v}} \]
\[ \ddot{\vv{v}} \]
\[ \vv{v} = \vv{u} + \dot{\vv{v}}t \]
\end{document}
```

**Output :**